In the field of technology, artificial intelligence (AI) is undoubtedly one of the most transformative technologies in today's world. However, with the rapid development of AI technology, international competition is also intensifying. Recently, the U.S. House of Representatives introduced a new bill called the "ENFORCE Act" aimed at strengthening export controls on critical technologies, especially AI technology. This bill will not only have a profound impact on the export management of AI technology but also limit the possibility of Chinese people working on AI-related jobs in the United States.

ENFORCE Act: New Restrictions on AI Exports

On May 8th, the U.S. House of Representatives submitted the "Enhancing Controls on Foreign Exports of Key Technologies Act" (ENFORCE Act). On May 23rd, the bill was passed in the first round by the U.S. House Foreign Affairs Committee with an overwhelming majority of 43 votes in favor and 3 against. The core content of the bill is to facilitate the U.S. government's export management of AI technology, especially for AI models of companies such as OpenAI, Microsoft, Anthropic, Google, Meta, etc.

Challenges for Chinese Engaging in AI Work in the U.S.

The passage of the bill will have a significant impact on Chinese people engaging in AI/ML-related work in the United States. According to the bill, Chinese people holding an H1b visa will need to obtain special permission to engage in AI-related work in the United States. This restriction is obviously intended to weaken and limit China's competitiveness in the field of AI.

Scope and Details of the Bill's Impact

The ENFORCE Act amends the Export Control Reform Act of 2018, giving the President greater power to control specific activities of U.S. individuals with specific AI systems and technologies that are crucial to national security. The scope of the bill's control is somewhat vague, covering all AI systems involving national security, including software and hardware, and specifically pointing out model weights as the object of control.

The Challenge of Defining Open Source Projects

The bill acknowledges the difficulty in defining open source projects, and the specific implementation details need to wait for subsequent clear regulations. This means that although this is an extension of existing export controls, exports that have been approved may not be restricted.


The introduction and passage of the ENFORCE Act will undoubtedly have an important impact on the development of global AI technology and international cooperation. It not only restricts the free flow of AI technology but may also bring new challenges to Sino-American cooperation in the field of science and technology. As the bill progresses further, we will continue to pay attention to its profound impact on the AI field and international technology cooperation.

Bill proposal link: ENFORCE Act

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